You may wonder what happens if a trader forgets to close out a long position. If he bought live hog futures, will someone deliver 40,000 pounds worth of squealing porkers to his back door the morning after his contract expires?
Sorry, but no.
Brokerage firms watch their open accounts and know who has long or short positions in contracts nearing maturity. Prior to delivery day, they inform customers who have open long positions that they must either close out the position or prepare to take delivery and pay the full value of the underlying contract. By the same token traders with short positions are informed that they must close out their trades or prepare to deliver the underlying commodity. In this case, they must have the required quantity and quality of the deliverable commodity on hand.
On the few occasions that a buyer accepts delivery against his futures contract, he is usually not given the underlying commodity itself (except in the case of financials), but rather a receipt entitling him to fetch the hogs, wheat, or corn from warehouses or distribution points.
Food processors or manufacturers who use futures to hedge rarely take delivery because the deliverable grade on the contract may not be exactly what they need. Hence, they will close out their futures position before delivery and buy in the cash market instead.
Sometimes merchants and dealers accept delivery because they can find buyers for many grades and types of the underlying commodity.